In Artificial Insemination Facilities for cattle breeding, the semen of bulls is stored and preserved by using cryogenic freezers. Liquid nitrogen is as a cooling medium for its characterics of being fluid at a low temperature of -196ºC (77K) and inert characteristics which prevent deterioration of the specimen quality.
For an AI program to be successful, progeny testing must be based upon the availability of a “semen archive bank” built up slowly and updated every year. Without this, no effective program for genetic improvement of cattle can be practical since the results of a particular insemination stage are not known until about four years after its start.
There is a choice between receiving bulk liquid nitrogen from industrial gas suppliers and producing liquid nitrogen on site. The bulk supply option is often used in countries with good infrastructure, meaning no liquid nitrogen producing equipment is required at the AI facility itself.
For artificial insemination facilities in geographical locations where infrastructure in underdeveloped or simply too far away, bulk supply cannot be guaranteed. Hence, producing liquid nitrogen on site is strongly recommended. Many centers in industrialized countries invest in a liquid nitrogen system as an additional source of supply in case of a supply emergency such as strikes, natural catastrophes, etc.
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